The fortress was built in 1250 by the City of Bologna and enlarged in 1310 by Romeo Pepoli.
The current appearance is due to the architect Giorgio Marchesi who worked at the end of ‘400, rebuilding part of the curtains and fortifying with larger tower, the Torresino, a splendid example of military architecture in the late fifteenth century.

This work became necessary to adapt the first fortified structure to the new rules brought in by defensive firearms, but have lost most traces of the old medieval building.The complex is hexagonal, with a perimeter of 200 meters.

The transformation of the Rock from a purely military structure into a noble palace was begun by Annibale, Vincenzo Baldassarre and Camps, which occupied the building in 1565 and was finished by Antonio Camps in 1594.The renovation and expansion of the powerful building was entrusted to Massari Dozza (ie across pro tempore of the Community) and lasted until 1594, with the primary goal is to obtain decent and capable environment in keeping with the functions of representative office of the feudal rock.In 1798, following the seizure by Napoleon, the castle was about to be confiscated, but the Marquis Giacomo Malvezzi-Camping knew prevent such a measure with appropriate memorials showing that it had been purchased for 4,000 gold crowns by Cardinal Lorenzo Camps and which was subsequently extended several times and restored the camp and Malvezzi-Camps, who had made their residence. Therefore, the construction was to be considered freehold property, private or otherwise, and not a feudal property and therefore should not be subjected to confiscation.The opening of this stately home was made in 1960, when the building was purchased by the city, with the support of the Province of Bologna. Since 1999 he has initiated a project to recover and the overall rehabilitation of the fortress still underway, funded by the City and the Region Emilia Romagna.The real historical figure is Lorenzo Dozza Camping, Cardinal, who in 1531 took possession of the castle and estate of Dozza, acknowledgment of his claim against the Apostolic Chamber for travel abroad on behalf of the pontiff.Born in Milan in 1474, a widower still young, he began his career eclesiastica, which reached high positions. Pope Julius II sent him to France at the court of Louis XII.He became archbishop in Salisbury after a friend of Henry VIII of England. Then appointed bishop of Bologna, after several other foreign missions was again at the court of Henry VIII to prevent a schism in the Anglican Church, a mission that failed. He died in Rome in 1539.The body of the cardinal had a curious treatment: it was boiled, reduced to bones, packed and shipped to Dozza. I his mortal remains were buried in a castle tower. Now rest in the crypt of the church’s provost Dozza.

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